Prompt engineering is the practice of crafting input queries or instructions to elicit more accurate and desirable outputs from large language models (LLMs). It is a crucial skill for working with artificial intelligence (AI) applications, helping developers achieve better results from language models.

Prompt engineering involves strategically shaping input prompts, exploring the nuances of language, and experimenting with diverse prompts to fine-tune model output and address potential biases. This nuanced approach ensures more accurate and contextually relevant results, making AI systems more reliable and easier to use.

As the AI community works toward delivering more responsible and efficient AI systems, the art of prompt engineering is key to unlocking the full potential of LLMs. In this article, we will discuss the intricacies and benefits of prompt engineering in AI development, highlighting how it can help you boost LLM performance when building AI-powered applications.

What is prompt engineering?

Prompt engineering is the practice of crafting inputs, or prompts, to effectively guide generative AI models toward desired outputs. It entails refining these prompts to elicit specific responses or behaviors, using the idiosyncrasies of the model’s training data and architecture.

Effective prompt engineering requires balancing precision and creativity. A well-crafted prompt can coax out insightful, coherent, and entertaining content from the AI model. Poorly crafted prompts, on the other hand, can produce unpredictable, inaccurate, or harmful responses.

Prompt engineering goes beyond simply selecting the right words: It involves a deep understanding of the model’s mechanics and the nuances of language interpretation.

The image below outlines the steps involved in a prompt engineering workflow.

Prompt engineering workflow

Prompt engineering starts with creativity, framing the desired outcome with a prompt that encapsulates the essential task to be performed. This input then meets the technical understanding checkpoint, where knowledge of the AI model’s mechanics comes into play. It involves decoding the nuances of language interpretation, considering biases, and understanding the model’s training data intricacies.

Then, the focus shifts to the AI model, where the crafted prompts interact with the generative AI. Prompt engineers make adjustments based on model responses, a process that requires continuous testing, evaluation, and refinement. The iterative nature of prompt engineering demands a keen eye for linguistic finesse and a deep understanding of the underlying algorithm.

Uses of prompt engineering

Prompt engineering can have a significant impact on user experience and model efficiency in AI systems. By carefully crafting prompts, you can guide models to generate more accurate and relevant responses, aligning with user expectations. This approach helps users interact with AI systems more intuitively, creating a smoother and more satisfying experience.

Additionally, well-designed prompts contribute to model efficiency by reducing unnecessary computation and fine-tuning the AI’s focus on specific tasks. This targeted approach amplifies response speed, optimizes computational resources, and makes AI systems more scalable and cost-effective.

Prompt engineering is a key component of working with LLMs and AI applications. Let’s explore some real-world examples where prompt engineering significantly improves the user experience.


Prompt engineering plays a pivotal role in sculpting chatbot conversations: It enables chatbots to communicate with a more natural and human-like fluidity. As a developer, you can tailor prompts that guide the model to generate responses that follow a specific tone and style, tailoring the chatbot’s language and capabilities to your business needs.

These changes can lead to more coherent and engaging exchanges between users and your chatbot. Prompt engineering also enhances the natural flow of dialogue and ensures that the chatbot better understands the context and user intent of a given exchange.

When crafting prompts for an AI chatbot, instead of a generic prompt like “How can I help you?”, you can use prompt engineering to tailor it to something like “Describe your issue briefly.” This subtle shift encourages users to articulate problems directly, aiding the chatbot in parsing information efficiently.

By anticipating user tendencies and refining prompts iteratively, the chatbot becomes better at understanding diverse queries, enhancing the overall customer experience with more accurate and targeted responses.

Content generation

Prompt engineering can also improve the performance of content generation applications. Refining prompts guides the AI to create content that is accurate, contextually aware, and engaging. This nuanced approach ensures relevance and depth, making the output feel more human and tailored to the specific needs of the user.

Moreover, with well-crafted prompts, you can align AI-generated content with user expectations, enhancing user experience. Prompt engineering also acts as a tuning fork for model efficiency, allowing for streamlined and targeted outputs.

For example, you can tailor prompts for specific topics and desired tones to refine the AI’s output, like configuring prompts to generate engaging tech reviews or insightful travel blogs.

Refining the prompt in this way ensures the AI understands the context and delivers output aligned with user preferences. This precision in prompt engineering transforms the content generation process, producing articles that resonate with readers and fulfill specific content requirements.


You can also use prompt engineering to refine AI applications that assist with decision-making. Thoughtfully crafted prompts yield more nuanced and relevant responses, that can streamline decision-making tasks.

For instance, you could design a sales management tool to generate actionable insights with prompts tailored to specific scenarios. By crafting prompts that guide users to analyze sales data, identify trends, and predict market demands, you help streamline the decision-making process. This approach also fosters a more efficient and informed environment where executives can strategize effectively based on customized prompts, ultimately enhancing business outcomes.

Skills needed for prompt engineering

Prompt engineering demands a blend of technical precision and creativity, necessitating technical and non-technical skills. These skills include:

  • A deep understanding of NLP — Familiarity and experience with natural language processing (NLP) is crucial for effective prompt engineering. This includes knowledge of syntax, semantics, and language structures.
  • Familiarity with LLM architectures — A solid grasp of LLM architectures, such as GPT, is essential. Understanding how these models process and generate language aids in crafting prompts that align with the model’s capabilities.
  • Strong data analysis capabilities — Data-driven decision-making is fundamental. Analyzing model outputs, training data, and performance metrics supports prompt refinement, ensuring optimal results.
  • Effective communication — The ability to translate complex concepts into simple and clear prompts is vital. Clear communication ensures the model interprets prompts accurately.
  • Proficiency in nuanced input creation — Crafting prompts that account for nuanced language and diverse contexts enhances the AI’s ability to generate meaningful and contextually relevant responses.
  • Critical thinking — Anticipating how the AI might interpret different prompts requires critical thinking. This skill helps identify potential biases and challenges in prompt engineering.

Prompt engineering techniques

There are several techniques you can use for prompt engineering, but two basic methods are zero-shot prompting and few-shot prompting.

Zero-shot prompting instructs the AI to perform a task without specific examples, relying solely on the model’s pre-existing knowledge and training. This method challenges the model to apply its learned knowledge to new scenarios, showcasing its generalization abilities.

Few-shot prompting provides the AI with a few examples, guiding the model’s response by offering context or indicating the type of task it needs to perform. These techniques demonstrate AI models’ flexibility and adaptability, highlighting their capacity to learn and respond in varied ways.

Beyond these foundational methods, you can use more advanced techniques to craft more intricate AI applications:

  • Chain of thought prompting (CoT) — CoT prompting involves providing sequential cues to guide an AI model’s response, mimicking a flowing conversation. This method enhances NLP tasks by maintaining context, enabling the model to grasp nuanced meanings and respond accurately to longer, more complex requests.

    By considering the progression of ideas within a prompt, the AI can better understand user intent. This approach minimizes ambiguity, using contextual information to generate more insightful outputs, ultimately elevating the overall performance of AI models in language-related tasks.

  • Tree of thoughts prompting (ToT) — ToT prompting involves structuring input in a hierarchical manner, resembling a branching thought process where the trunk is the main idea or inquiry, the branches are specific aspects or sub-topics of the main idea, and the leaves are the most detailed and specific prompts. This method enhances AI models in NLP tasks by capturing intricate relationships within a query, gaining a deeper understanding of user intent.

    By incorporating a tree-like structure, the model parses for context, yielding more accurate and relevant responses. It allows for deeper comprehension and more detailed reponses, as the model considers various branches of meaning.

  • Directional stimulus prompting — This method guides AI models with specific hints to elicit targeted responses. For example, to ensure the model produces output on Revolutionary War figure John Paul Jones and not the Led Zeppelin bassist of the same name, you might prompt it with “Provide a brief biograph of John Paul Jones. Hint: Revolutionary War.”

    Directional stimulus prompting enhances NLP tasks by providing a clear direction, reducing ambiguity, and enabling models to focus on user intent. The model refines its understanding using intentional signals. Directional Stimulus Prompting streamlines communication, helping the model lead precise and effective exchanges.

Building effective LLM applications with CI/CD

Integrating prompt engineering into the continuous integration/continuous delivery (CI/CD) process is pivotal for advancing the development and maintenance of LLM applications. CI/CD automates and streamlines software delivery and can be used in tandem with prompt engineering to quickly improve the efficiency, adaptability, and robustness of LLM applications.

Prompt engineering can be implemented within your CI/CD pipeline using:

  • Regular updates — Prompts are continually refined and updated, ensuring they remain relevant and effective.
  • Automated testing — Automated tests evaluate the effectiveness of various prompts, ensuring only high-quality prompts are used.
  • Version control — Changes in prompts are tracked, supporting easy reverting and increasing the understanding of their impact.
  • Rapid deployment — Updated prompts are quickly deployed, allowing for immediate improvements in LLM performance.
  • Feedback integration — User feedback is continuously monitored and incorporated into the development cycle, facilitating real-time refinement of prompts.

Embedding prompt engineering into your CI/CD pipeline enables you to systematically iterate on and improve model prompts, shortening the time required to respond to performance issues and new features and updates to your AI applications.


Prompt engineering is essential to elevating LLM performance, embodying a unique fusion of creative and technical expertise. Marrying linguistics with technology, it helps the AI model navigate the intricacies of language and customize its responses to user needs.

As AI evolves and LLMs become increasingly capable, prompt engineering will become indispensable for harnessing the full potential of LLMs. Prompt engineering is more than a practice — it is a key to sculpting the future of AI-driven software.

If you are building LLM-powered applications, you need a powerful, scalable automation platform to help you fine tune, evaluate, and deploy your models. Sign up for a free CircleCI account to see how CI/CD can enhance your prompt engineering and LLM development processes today.