Using the Linux VM execution environment
You can run your jobs in the linux VM (virtual machine) execution environment by using the machine executor and specifying a Linux image. Using the machine executor runs your jobs in a dedicated, ephemeral VM.
Using the machine executor gives your application full access to OS resources and provides you with full control over the job environment. This control can be useful in situations where you need full access to the network stack; for example, to listen on a network interface, or to modify the system with
To use the machine executor, use the
machine key in your job configuration and specify an image:
You can view the list of available images in the docs Configuration Reference, or on the Developer Hub. If you are working on an installation of CircleCI server, you will notice in the example above the syntax is slightly different, and the available Linux images are managed by your system administrator.
Available LinuxVM resource classes
The most up to date list of pre-installed software can be found on the Discuss page.
If you are already using an image and would like to verify the all the packages that come pre-installed, you can run the
apt list --installed command as a step, like in the example below:
version: 2.1 ... jobs: whats-installed: machine: # executor type image: ubuntu-2004:2022.07.1 steps: - run: apt list --installed ...
Additional packages can be installed with
sudo apt-get install <package>. If the package in question is not found,
sudo apt-get update may be required before installing it.
Use machine with Docker
Using the machine executor also means that you get full access to the Docker process. This allows you to run privileged Docker containers and build new Docker images.
The following example uses an image and enables Docker layer caching (DLC) which is useful when you are building Docker images during your job or workflow.
machine: image: ubuntu-2004:202104-01 docker_layer_caching: true # default - false
Using machine and IP ranges
The IP range
192.168.53.0/24 is reserved by CircleCI for internal use on the machine executor. This range should not be used in your jobs.
To find out about migrating a project from using the Docker executor to using
machine, see the Executor Migration from Docker to Machine document.
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